Introduction

 

On this Sixth Sunday in Easter, we invite you to reflectively and thoughtfully journey through the Liturgy of The Holy Eucharist1. Eucharist is the Greek word for Thanksgiving. In the Eucharist, we give thanks for what God has done for us in Jesus Christ.  This service is often known as Communion, for in it we commune with God and also with each other as the Body of Christ.

 

Liturgy is our communal work.

“The word liturgy is derived from Greek words that carry the weight of people and work. The term originally referred to a public duty, even perhaps a benefaction on behalf of the community. As a work, it was necessarily structured. One cannot bake bread or care for a garden without performing certain actions in a constructive order: do not start on the bread before you buy the yeast … do not plant the seeds before you turn the soil… [Liturgy] is the sequence of actions that are performed on any given occasion to honour God and to enable people to draw near the sacred” (Paul Gibson, 2009). 2

 

As we come to worship, we will experience with all our senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, and taste) the four movements that shape the liturgy of The Holy Eucharist:

  • Gathering the Community;
  • The Liturgy of the Word;
  • The Celebration of the Eucharist; and
  • Sending Forth.

 

May you discover new pathways to engage worship and an ever deepening sense of what it means for you. Let us worship together.

 

 

Part 1:  Gathering of the Community

 

The journey begins when we leave our homes, we are now on our way to constitute the church (ekklesia in Greek means ‘one’s called out’). As we assemble, we ‘become’ the church. We have been called to come together in one place, to bring our lives to be more than we were, to become a new community with a new life.3

Being present for Sunday worship is especially meaningful. Sunday is a testimony to newness, dawn, and to resurrection. Sunday becomes a weekly anniversary of Christ’s resurrection, beginning on Saturday at sunset.4 The Christian Sunday also grew from an idea of the eighth day in later Jewish writings. A day beyond the frustrations and limitations of the seven days in a week.

“Christ rose from the dead on the first day after Sabbath. The life that shone forth from the grave was beyond the inescapable limitations of “seven”, of time that leads to death. It was thus the beginning of a new life and of a new time… This is the day on which the Church celebrates the Eucharist.” (Schmemann, 1963, p. 51).

As each of us enters the church building we are greeted, welcomed and given our service bulletin.  We can prepare ourselves for worship by noticing the architecture of the sacred space. The basilica shape pulls our eyes upward, reminding us of our need to worship God (a vertical axis).5  We enter on the west into the Narthex6 and our eyes are drawn forward toward the Sanctuary on the east, where the Altar is lit with candles (the horizontal axis).7 The Altar is a focal point. The eastern place where we will encounter the risen Christ like that of the rising sun.8

It is customary out of respect, and an acknowledgment of Christ’s presence, to bow before the Altar. Engaging our body in gestures of prayer is a way to engage the whole self in worship and acknowledge that God in Jesus took and honoured bodily form. Notice also a white lamp burning at the front (to the left of the high altar) above the wooden tabernacle as a reminder that the Reserved Sacrament is present The Reserved Sacrament 9 is consecrated bread and wine not consumed at a previous service and kept to take to members of the community who are sick or unable to gather. We bow or genuflect (bowing down on one knee) in the presence of this white light in respect and reverence for the Reserved Sacrament.

As we move quietly and reflectively into the Nave10, we pass by the Baptismal Font. This is a second focal point. Baptism is a reminder to us of our initiation or entry into Christian community – our belonging, our identity, and our mission.

“Baptism is a coming into the Body of Christ, in which we become members of one another and of Christ – it is about who we are in Christ, and whose we are: God’s own. In baptism we are gathered… and sent forth, in the ministry that is God’s own ministry of transformation, reconciliation, healing and salvation of the world”11

When there is water in the Baptismal Font, we can touch the water to make the sign of the cross on our bodies. We will sign ourselves with the cross throughout the worship service. This is a tangible way to claim that we are Christ’s. Signing oneself with the cross is an act of sanctification, which means “setting apart.” Our souls, our bodies, and our lives are set apart for Christ, under and in his cross. For example, many people sign themselves before receiving communion.

 

Prelude

The silence is broken with the sound of a bell. Bells and singing bowls mark beginnings, endings, announce happenings in the liturgy and call people to worship. Everyone stands. Standing is traditionally the position for Christian worship as it symbolizes our honour of the resurrection of Christ, and through baptism our standing as righteous before God. We stand for praise and to show respect. 12

 

Opening Hymn

At the 9:00am, the gathered people begin to sing and all follow the processional cross to the chancel (the choir stalls)

At the 11:00am the organ plays the opening hymn and the procession begins. The choir process followed by the crucifer, who carries a single processional cross. They are followed by a server carrying the Gospel, the assisting priests, (deacons), and the celebrant. In the procession  we are demonstrating how all of us are to live our lives: clothed with the grace and mercy of God and following the way of the cross of Jesus. It may also represent to us how God comes into human life disguised as one of us.

Members of the procession may wear a variety of vestments. These are garments that express the nature of the occasion, bear witness to the theology and history of liturgy, and distinguish the functions of those who will serve during the worship service.13  Vestments also contribute an expression of beauty and craft in order to bring God glory and honour. At the 11:00am, the choir are clothed in blue robes, and the servers, (deacons) and priests in white robes known as albs. Albs are not priestly garments, they are the traditional baptismal garments of all Christians, a symbol of purity, wholeness and a new identity in Christ. The clergy (priests and deacons) also wear coloured outer garments. They wear stoles, strips of decorative fabric, as a sign of servanthood and ordination. And the presider wears a chasuble, a sleeveless poncho-like garment originating in Rome in the 6th century.14  The colours of these garments are aligned with the season of the church year, also reflected in the altar hangings.

The preparatory colours of Advent and Lent are purple/blue for royalty and penitence. The festal colours of celebration of Easter, Christmas and Feast Days are white for purity and joy. The “ordinary” season is green (ordinal numbers and the colour of growth), and the red of Pentecost and Holy Week indicates fire (the Spirit) or a martyr’s death (blood). The music is also chosen to correspond with the season of the church year and the particular lectionary readings for that Sunday.

 

The Greeting

After the Opening Hymn, the service continues with a formal greeting sometimes called the opening acclamation. In the season of Easter we proclaim that Christ is Risen. This exchange formally welcomes everyone to the service while also asserting our purpose: we are gathered as a community to worship God.

 

Gloria

The Gloria in Excelsis, a fifth century canticle or hymn of praise was “written in a time when there were those who wanted to distance Jesus from God and were unsure of the place of the Holy Spirit. Thus it provides a hymn of praise to the Trinity, focusing on the work of Christ.”15  Other hymns of praise depending on the church season can also be appropriate at this time.

 

Collects

One or two collects may be prayed at the opening of the service. A collect is a focused prayer that collects our thoughts and intentions toward a particular theme. Collects address and describe characteristics of God, make a request or petition known, and invoke the name of Jesus in relation with the Trinity.16

The first collect, prayed before the Gloria, is the Collect for Purity and it begins: “Almighty God, to you all hearts are open, all desires known…” It is not included in our Easter liturgy. For centuries, the priest said this Collect for Purity silently but it has since become a prayer said by the whole community.17 The second, is the Collect of the Day. This prayer is written to focus the community on both the season of the church year and the readings for the day.

We have gathered as a community and we are now prepared for the central two movements of the liturgical service: the Liturgy of the Word and the Celebration of the Eucharist (Table). These two elements are inseparable and are formative in the creating and re-creating of the worshipping Church into the one body of Christ. A worship service with no eucharist is known as Morning Prayer, a liturgy in the tradition of the monastic prayer of the hours.

 

 Part 2:  Liturgy of the Word

 

“So faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through  the word of Christ.”  (Romans 10:17).

 

Reading and commenting on Scripture goes back to the earliest services of Christianity. Up until modern times the Scriptures would have been chanted, thus enabling clearer hearing before electronic amplification.

 

First Reading, Psalm & Second Reading

“In the early Church, Christian communities read from the Hebrew Scriptures, which we now refer to as the Old Testament. Eventually they began to add letters of Paul and others to their service. It was these readings that became in time our New Testament.”18  The Anglican Church of Canada follows the Revised Common Lectionary19 of 1992, an international guide and pattern for Scripture readings. The Revised Common Lectionary developed as a way to increase unity among the churches and promote a common experience of the Scriptures.

Our pattern is to listen to a portion of the Old Testament being read, followed by a responsive reading or singing of a Psalm (or portion of one) at the 11:00am, and then listening to a second reading from a New Testament epistle, or letter. The readers stand at the Ambo, a reading stand at the 9:00am, and at the 11:00am, a lectern in the form of an eagle that supports the text on its outstretched wings and is the symbol of John the Evangelist.20 The Ambo is a third focal point. We respond to the readings with  “Thanks be to God”, acknowledging that we have heard the reading and are thankful for the Word of God. “This response is just as appropriate following passages of judgment as it is the grace-filled portions of Scripture.”21

 

The Gospel

The reading of the Gospel is given a significant place in the service. A Hymn, Canticle or A Gospel Acclamation may be sung prior to the Gospel reading. These songs are known as the Gradual. The Latin word for “step” is gradus – it is the time that the Gospel bearer, servers and Gospeller (one who reads the Gospel) “step out” with the Gospel into the midst of the people. The servers carry two candles from the front of the altar lighting the Gospel.

“Saint Jerome said that candles are lit when one is to read the Gospels as a sign of joy and in order to experience connection between word and light for, “Thy word is a lamp to my feet, and a light to my path.”22

We stand for the reading of the Gospel to show the particular importance we place on Jesus’ words and actions. The congregation has special responses before and after the Gospel reading. During the response preceding the Gospel, some Christians cross themselves (with their thumb) over their foreheads, their mouths, and their hearts. This symbolizes seeking to have God’s Word in our minds (forehead), our speaking (mouths), and in the center of our being (our hearts). The crossing is a prayer that we would think, speak and love like Christ. The Gospel is read in among the people in the Nave as a sign of the incarnation of Christ – He came among us.

 

The Sermon

The sermon or homily is the application of the word of God to the pastoral needs of a particular community at a particular time and place. “The job of the preacher is not only to say what the text meant then… but how the underlying principle (the spirit of the text) might be expressed so that it addresses the current situation.”23

We need to hear sermons that challenge our assumptions as well as strengthen our faith. Each listener has a responsibility during the sermon to listen with their head (reflecting and evaluating what is said) and with their heart (listening for the Spirit’s nudge in their life of faith). For this purpose, in some contexts, there is a time of reflective silence and open discussion following the homily.24

 

The Creed

Historically, the Nicene Creed (used on major festivals) or the Apostle’s Creed25 follows  immediately after the sermon and provided a ‘guard from erroneous preaching’.

Reciting the creed is a personal and communal statement of our tradition of faith. Some of us may find difficulty in saying “I believe” or “We believe” all the content in these creeds. However the words of the creed help us express the faith and trust we have in the Christian story. Though we may not individually affirm all points of the doctrine as expressed, we are part of this tradition and this way of living in relationship to God. It may also be helpful to know that the church has not always agreed on these credal statements; in fact the history of the creeds are entangled in controversy. Perhaps we could think of the creeds being introduced in this way: “Let us affirm the faith of the church by reciting the theological imagery developed at Nicaea in 325/381 CE.” 26

 

The Prayers of the People

These prayers are a faith-filled response from the community to all we have heard – the Scripture readings, the hymns, the Gospel, the sermon and the creed. A member of the community, through the eyes of faith, calls to mind our whole lives as a community and  assists us to offer it to God. We pray for real matters within the church and the government; we pray for local and global peace and justice, we remember those who are ill especially those known to us, we pray for the dead, and we give thanks for all of God’s blessings. The leader prays using either the different forms provided in The Book of Alternative Services or extemporaneously.27 The worshipping community may be directed to respond with a bidding:  “Lord, have mercy” (Latin “Kyrie, Eleison”) is frequently used.28 We are usually given the opportunity to add our own petitions and thanksgivings to the prayers offered.

 

Confession and Absolution

As human beings we are prone to make mistakes from time to time, if not daily! Being Anglican, means that we are steeped in a tradition that admits when we get it wrong. From Thomas Cranmer’s Book of Common Prayer (1552) to our Book of Alternative Services (1985), confession is central to our practice. We are invited to kneel, sit or stand for this part of the liturgy – in a posture of humility and reception before God.

It is healthy for us to regularly take stock of ourselves, both as individuals and as a community and wonderful to be reminded that we are absolved, forgiven and free to start anew as many times as needed.29 And as we ask God’s forgiveness for things done and things left undone, we know that “God doesn’t know how NOT to forgive” (Bishop Jim Cruickshank). The priest’s words of absolution remind us that it is in the nature of God to forgive our sins; and we seek to imitate God by forgiving one another. Liturgy is our training ground, a place to learn how to say “sorry” or “I forgive you” when we have hurt or been hurt by another.30

Private confession is not required in our church, although for those particularly in need of unburdening themselves of past wrongs, private confession is offered by appointment with the priest, and can be a source of great relief and consolation.

 

The Peace

The priest faces the community and proclaims: “The Peace of Christ be always with you”.  Following our response we are invited to pass the peace to each other, being sensitive to whether we should offer a smile and a nod, a handshake or a hug. The act of passing the peace grew out of the instruction to make right with others before participating in the eucharist  (Matthew 5:23-24 and in early liturgical tradition see Didache31 (AD 60).

Passing the peace, though a simple gesture, is theologically rich. It is an encounter, a reconciliation, and an anticipation.32 As an encounter it reminds us that we meet Christ in others and without that encounter it is impossible to meet God. In our urban context we live amidst deep division, we offer peace to each other as a sign that we are pursuing reconciliation with our fellow sisters and brothers across boundaries of culture, race, ethnicity, social class and gender. As anticipation it reminds us that the moments of peace and unity we have experienced are but a glimpse of God’s kingdom that is yet to come.

 

 Part 3:  The Celebration of the Eucharist

 

“The cup of blessing that we bless, is it not a sharing in the blood of Christ? The bread that we break, is it not a sharing in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body,  for we all partake of the one bread.”   (1 Corinthians 10:16-17)

 

The earliest record of a Christian Eucharistic Liturgy is in the Biblical text of Paul’s letter to the Corinthians. The Corinthian Eucharist was a social ritual that unified the Christian community (‘koinonia’ in Greek) through the act of sharing a meal.33

The Eucharist or Communion is based on Jewish fellowship meals, particularly the Passover Seder.  A Seder involves a retelling of the story of the liberation of the Israelites from slavery in ancient Egypt, drinking wine, eating matza (unleavened bread), partaking of symbolic foods, and reclining in a celebration of freedom.

The Liturgy of the Eucharist follows Jesus’ command to his disciples to remember his last meal with them (a Passover Seder) each time they gather. We read in the Gospels that Jesus “took bread” and “blessed it” and after supper “took a cup of wine” and “gave thanks” over it. These acts provide the form of our Eucharist.

 

Offertory

We transition into the Liturgy of the Eucharist during the offertory. When the Eucharist was first celebrated it was in the context of an actual banquet in a domestic setting. During the offertory Christians brought gifts of cheese, olives, milk, honey, wine and bread for blessing and distribution to the poor.34 In the same way we give back to God from the gifts God has given us. As we present our financial gifts and we carry a cruet of wine and a basket of bread to the Altar, we are truly offering ourselves to God so that we may be instruments of God’s work in the world. Our time, efforts and resources continue to support the work of helping people in need around our community and around the world.

The Altar, lit by the epistle candle (right side) and gospel candle (left side), is now our focal point. During the season of Easter35, the pathway to the Altar is also lit by the tall Paschal Candle in the centre of the Chancel. The Paschal Candle is named after the Pasch, the passion, death and resurrection of the Lord. The candle represents Christ the light of the world.

Approaching the Altar, the presiding priest reverences the Altar with a bow and with a kiss. The celebrant washes her/his hands and together with a deacon or server prepares the table by placing a white linen cloth36 on the Altar. The bread, wine and offering are then received at the table from the Gospel side.

“The provision of bread and wine speaks to many of the sanctification of the ordinary and common. People bring bread and wine out of their ordinary lives in faith that their ordinary lives may be transformed. The notion that God is to be found in ordinary life rather than at some infinite distance is reinforced. Because bread and wine are manufactured commodities, requiring harvesting, grinding, crushing, tending, baking, their use at the Lord’s table gives dignity and even new meaning to human labour.”37

The water and wine are mixed together, as was the practice with Jewish table wine, and reminds us of the blood and water that poured from Jesus’ side after his death on the cross.

 

Prayer over the Gifts

On the table, set out before us, are bread and wine prepared, gifts of the community gathered, and we pray asking God to transform us. We ask that:

“in bread and wine we taste the living presence of God, in food for the hungry we imagine a world where there is enough for all, in the money we have given we pray that our lives will be instruments of God’s peace and love in the world”. 38

We receive these gifts and then bless them.

 

The Great Thanksgiving (Eucharist)

The priest begins with a dialogue, inviting us to lift up our hearts and give thanks to God. Thanksgiving is the most appropriate posture for us as God’s creatures, because everything we have is a gift.

Then the priest recites the story of the acts of God’s love for humanity. We hear snippets about creation, the promised blessing to Abraham and Sarah, the exodus, the prophets, Jesus’ conception and birth, humanity’s sin and God’s forgiveness.

As we lift up our hearts, we join in the song of heaven and we enter the Eucharistic feast. Through our prayers of thanks, we are lifted up to join in the praise that is always already happening.39

The Sanctus is an ancient hymn (included in 11th century manuscripts) and recalls a vision written in the Old Testament Book of Isaiah 6:340 and again in Revelation 4:8 in the New Testament. In the singing of the Sanctus, we welcome Jesus (the One who came) into our midst.

We remember Jesus life, his last meal with his friends and how he told them to take bread and wine and bless them and share them with each other remembering him. The priest offers us familiar words from Paul’s letter to the Corinthians: Jesus “took bread” and “blessed it” and after supper “took a cup of wine” and “gave thanks” over it, establishing a new covenant.41 These are known as the words of institution.42

The priest then invokes the Holy Spirit to descend on the gifts and on us. In the Eucharistic Prayer, the bread and the wine which the community has offered become the outward and visible signs of an inward and spiritual grace.43 And that Grace is a gift from God. Jesus’ real presence is with us through the power of the Holy Spirit.

 

“This real presence is not the result of a magical incantation on the part of the priest. No set of words makes Christ present. Rather, Christ has promised to be present when we gather in his name. As the community gathers together to partake of bread and wine, remembers the work of Jesus, and calls on the Holy Spirit, Christ feeds us spiritually by faith. It is God’s action that makes the Eucharist.” 44

 

The vision of the Eucharist is a social vision as well as a spiritual vision. “There is food enough for all, broken and shared, blessed and sipped: the bread of tomorrow and the wine of the age to come”.45

The bread and cup are then lifted up before us and we see the wholeness of God in this bread, then it is broken and shared. The lifting up or Anaphora, has traditionally been a moment holding extensive meaning for followers of Christ. At one time in history viewing the bread was the only means of participation in the Eucharistic for lay members of the community (apart from Easter Sunday).

At the end of the Great Thanksgiving the community are invited to agree, with a loud Amen.

 

The Lord’s Prayer

Before we share the bread and wine we say the Lord’s Prayer, summarizing all that we have done and then we receive. The Lord’s Prayer has been part of the eucharistic liturgy at least since the 4th century. And we can notice profound theological connections in the phrase “our daily bread” and the spiritual food we receive in the Eucharist. In the Lord’s Prayer we ask for daily bread, that all we need would be provided for each day. The Eucharistic bread is God’s presence and daily spiritual nourishment. By praying for the coming of God’s kingdom, we are reminded that the Eucharist is also an anticipation of the future banquet in the kingdom of God. The petitions for forgiveness are another way in which the Eucharist as an act of reconciliation is expressed.46

 

The Breaking of the Bread, Fraction Anthem & The Invitation

The presider breaks the one bread, emphasizing the symbolic unity of the community –  we being many, are one body, because we share in the one bread.

The presider invites us to communion with the proclamation, “The gifts of God for the People of God.” We respond with appropriate thanksgiving.

 

Communion

Our practice is that the priest, the servers and administrators receive communion after the community as an act of servanthood and hospitality. In line with tradition, the priest presiding does not give her/himself communion, as the sacrament is never taken but is always received.47

At the 9:00am all are gathered around the communion table for the Eucharistic prayer and pass to one another the body and the blood of Christ. Gathering around the table symbolizes that Christ is the center who connects us to one another and communing one another emphasizes the equality and priesthood of all believers.

At the 11:00am, once the altar rail is closed (not an act of exclusion but of making room), the community are welcomed to kneel in order to receive. The journey to the altar and kneeling symbolize the pilgrimage of faith and a sign of one’s devotion and humility. Communion is traditionally taken by placing your right hand over your left to receive the bread and then taking a sip from the common cup or chalice. After receiving either element, our response is “Amen” to signal our acceptance that the sacrament be the real presence of Christ. The lay administrator uses a cloth (purificator) to clean the outside of the chalice, after each use.

Healing is an essential aspect of Christ’s ministry among us. If you wish prayer for healing for yourself or on behalf of someone else, come to the prayer station (in the corner by the Lady Chapel on the left side of the church) at any time during Communion. You may either state your prayer need (or the name of the person for whom you wish to pray) or you may remain silent. The prayer team will lay hands gently on you and after a short silence and, in awareness of God’s presence, they will pray for you.

Some of our communion is set aside each week as Reserved Sacrament. If you or someone you know is sick or unable to gather and would like to have communion brought to them, you can ask one of the priests to make arrangements. When you can’t come to worship, the church can come to you.48

 

Part 4: Sending Forth

“And now the time has come for us to return into the world… it is a new beginning, and things that were impossible are again revealed to us  as possible” (Schmemann, 1973, p. 45).

 

Post Communion Prayer

Beginning with the Post Communion Prayer (dating back to the 4th Century), the liturgy prepares us for going out. We take a moment to enter into reflective silence. It is time to refocus on the purpose of our gathering as a community. Together we offer the Post Communion Prayer, a prayer of thanksgiving, “that sums up what God has done with us in the liturgy and stresses that our worship has prepared us for our daily mission in the world.” 49

We then recite the doxology, a prayer of praise to the glory of God reminding us that it is God working through us that equips us to do God’s work in the world. The doxology is a prayer from Paul’s letter to the Christians in Ephesus (Ephesians 3:20).

 

The Blessing

The priest offers a blessing which pronounces God’s love and favour on the community. We sign ourselves with the cross as we hear the words: “… and the blessing of God almighty, Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit…” We affirm the blessing with an Amen.

 

Announcements

At the gathering of the 9:00am and at this point in our 11:00am service, we normally pause for announcements. Although it sometimes feels casual, it has an important function in the liturgy. We announce tasks, services that require the engagement of the community and we announce information that requires the prayer of the community. The announcements are part of sending the community into work and witness in the world.50

 

The Dismissal

Appropriately said after the final hymn, the dismissal is the final word of the liturgy. It is said by a server or deacon as one who is familiar with a life of work and witness in the world. We hear the words in the season of Easter: “Alleluia, Alleluia. Go forth into the world rejoicing in the power of the Spirit”. To which we respond with thanksgiving and, during Easter, an Alleluia or two.

The dismissal functionally brings the service to an end, but should not only be seen simply as a concluding phrase.51 Rather, we are being commissioned to go forth and bring Jesus Christ, whom we have heard and received, into the world. In one sense, this final instruction is one of the most important, since it reminds all of us who have assembled to go forth and live the gospel. We have not been instructed and fed merely for our own sake, but for the life of the world.52

“The Eucharist liturgy pours into us an abundance of spiritual energy which is given to us not just for our own spiritual journey but to help others along the way. Equipped with the Word, nourished with the Sacrament, we go out into the world in the name of Christ.”53

 

 

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1 The shape of The Holy Eucharist used at St Paul’s follows the Book of Alternative Services of The Anglican Church of Canada, 1985. It is not a replacement of the 1959 Canadian Book of Common Prayer but a supplement to it.

2 Gibson, P. (2009). Make preparation: Liturgy planning notes. ABC Publishing Anglican Book Centre: Ontario. p. 8.

3 Schmemann, A. (1963). For the life of the world. Crestwood, New York: St Vladimir’s Seminary Press.

4 White, J. F. (1983). Introduction to Christian Worship. Nashville, Tennessee: Parthenon Press.

5Cobb, P. G. (1992). The Architectural Setting of the Liturgy. In C. Jones, G. Wainwright, E. Yarnold & P. Bradshaw (Eds.), The Study of Liturgy (pp. 528-542). New York: Oxford University Press.

6Traditionally the Narthex was a place of penitence, a place for people who were not permitted to take part in the service (Senn, 2012). Today they are places to gather before or after the service.

7Senn, F. C. (2012). Introduction to Christian Liturgy. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press.

8We also await Christ’s coming from the east (Matthew 24:27, Revelation 1:7).

9The Reserved Sacrament is kept in a cabinet called the tabernacle.

10Naves, a reference to a ship, are places in which people gather. They were once wide open spaces with aisles for processions. But since the 14th century, Naves have been filled with seating, which can restrict movement and interaction (Senn, 2012).

11Anglican Church of Canada website: http://www.anglican.ca/faith/ministry/baptised/

12Senn, 2012.

13Grisbrooke, W. J. Vestments. In G. W. C. Jones, E. Yarnold, P. Bradshaw (Ed.), The Study of Liturgy (pp. 542-547).                                            New York: Oxford University Press.

14Senn, 2012.

15Stevenson, K. (2002). Do this: The Shape, Style and Meaning of the Eucharist. Norwich: Canterbury Press (p. 48).

16Robertson, C. K. (2013). The Book of Common Prayer: A Spiritual Treasure Chest – Selections Annotated & Explained. Woodstock, Vermont: Skylight Paths.

17The Prayer Book of 1552 made this prayer a public one said aloud by the priest for all the people gathered. In the Book of                     Alternative Services, this has become a prayer said by the whole community.

18St. Aidan Anglican Church, 2015.https://staidon-ca.s3.amazenaws.com/docs/instructed_eucharist_04_october_2015.pdf

19The Revised Common Lectionary includes a three year cycle; with a focus in Year A on the Gospel of Matthew, Year on the Gospel of Mark (supplemented by readings from the Gospel of John), and Year C on the Gospel of Luke. The Gospel of John is used every year in the Easter season (Senn, 2012).

20Senn, 2012.

21St. Aidan Anglican Church, 2015.

22St. Tikhon Monastery, 1986, online; Psalm 119:105

23Gibson, 2009, p. 26.

24Senn, 2012.

25The earliest evidence for the present form of the Apostles Creed is St Pirminius in the early 8th Century although it appears to be related to a shorter Roman Creed which had itself derived from other earlier and simpler texts such as the ‘rule of faith’ or the ‘tradition’ which were based on the Lord’s baptismal command in Matthew 28:19. The Creed seems to have had three uses, as a confession of faith for those about to be baptised, secondly as a catechism (an instruction for new Christians in the essentials of the faith), and thirdly, as a ‘rule of faith’ to give continuity to orthodox Christian doctrine.

26A Teaching Eucharist (August 11, 2013); Prepared by The Rev.Dixie Black, The Rev. Chris Dierkes, Dean Peter Elliott; Christ Church Cathedral, Vancouver, BC. Accessed online: http://www.cathedral.vancouver.bc.ca/2013/08/12/teaching-eucharist-by-cathedral-clergy-august-11-2013/

27Composed, performed, or uttered on the spur of the moment , impromptu; or carefully prepared but delivered without notes or text (Merriam-Webster Dictionary).

28Stevenson, 2002.

29Stevenson, 2002.

30Black, Dierkes & Elliott (2013). Christ Church Cathedral, Vancouver, BC.

31“Come together on the dominical day of the Lord, break bread and give thanks, having first confessed your sins that your sacrifice may be pure. Anyone who has a quarrel with his fellow should not gather with you until he has been reconciled, lest your sacrifice be profaned” (Didache cited in Rordoff, 1978, p. 3).

32St. Aidan Anglican Church, 2015.

33Fiorenza, E., S. (1982). In M. Collins & D. Power (Eds.), Can we always celebrate the eucharist? Edinburgh: T & T Clark Ltd.

34Senn, 2012.

35After Ascension Day the Paschal Candle is usually kept near the Baptismal Font for use during Baptisms.

36The cloth is called a corporeal (literally body cloth).

37Gibson, 2009, p. 47.

38Black, Dierkes & Elliott (2013). Christ Church Cathedral, Vancouver, BC.

39Schmemann, 1973.

40“In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, high and lofty; and the hem of his robe filled the temple. Seraphs were in attendance above him; each had six wings: with two they covered their faces, and with two they covered their feet, and with two they flew. And one called to another and said: “Holy, holy, holy is the Lord of hosts; the whole earth is full of his glory.” (Isaiah 6:1-3)

41A covenant is a relational contract between God and humanity.

42White, 1983.

43Anglican Church of Canada. (1985). The Book of Alternative Services of the Anglican Church of Canada. Toronto: ABC Publishing, Anglican Book Centre.

44St. Aidan Anglican Church, 2015.

45Black, Dierkes & Elliott (2013). Christ Church Cathedral, Vancouver, BC.

46St. Aidan Anglican Church, 2015.

47Gibson, 2009

48St. Aidan Anglican Church, 2015.

49Black, Dierkes & Elliott (2013). Christ Church Cathedral, Vancouver, BC.

50St. Aidan Anglican Church, 2015.

51Stevenson, 2002.

52Schmemann, 1973.

53Black, Dierkes & Elliott (2013). Christ Church Cathedral, Vancouver, BC.